There's a family in Iliamna that uses whistles instead of voice commands. There's a whistle for "hike", one for "gee" and another for "haw". They may have others I don't know about. They make the whistles themselves while holding onto the handle bow.
I once heard of a deaf man who enjoyed driving dogs. He would whistle to the leader who would look back at him. He'd use his hand and arm with extended finger and point right or left. He got around just fine.